Tuesday, 3 April 2018

Twenty five years of the REF and me.

Over on Twitter there has been a recent series of posts on the #REF, and a lot of contention about its use and its worth; and its impact on the humanities in particular. For an excellent summary see Ian Pace's blog The RAE and REF: Resources and Critiques. The raw emotion felt in response to the ill-treatment of many at the hands of RAE/REF managers is fully on display - and makes for harrowing reading.  The pressures on ECRs are very real and the REF leads many academic department heads and research administrators to make stupid, and inhumane decisions.  My own experience of the RAE and REF, however, is different, and as 240 characters won’t allow me the space to reflect how it has shaped my career - I have posted here instead.

I received my doctorate in 1985, via a system that seemed predicated on a belief that supervision was just one option, human contact a luxury, and emotions superfluous.  The five years spent as a doctoral student remain a low-point in my life.  Entirely unsuccessful in my attempts to find a job or secure a post-doctoral fellowship, I spent the next four years supporting myself doing a mixture of working building sites, casual teaching (mainly for US 'study abroad' programmes) and research for publishers.  As an institution uniquely open to the un-employed, the IHR tea-room became my only academic point of contact.  By 1989, I had essenitally given up any academic ambitions, when I was appointed as a lecturer in 'eighteenth-century social and economic history and humanities computing' at the Polytechnic of North London.   It felt miraculous at the time.  As far as I can remember this was the first permanent post to come up in the UK in my field of 18th century social history in four years, and I suspect I was appointed not for my historical expertise, but because I could cover both halves of the job description.

A few years later PNL became the University of North London, and I was charged with running the department of history.  The first RAE the 'new' universities could participate in came soon after, in 1992. No one else in the department thought it was worthwhile putting in a submission and there was no mechanism for organising such a thing, so I pretty much wrote it myself. The department at the time was a stunning place to teach (my best work experience in a 30-year career), but there was no research funding.  The annual research budget ran to some £2,500 between some 45 humanities staff.  One year there was an actual physical fight outside the committee where that £2,500 was allocated.  My colleagues were nevertheless a remarkable group of historians including people such as Kathy Castle,  John Tosh and Denis Judd. 

In the end, we were awarded a score of '3' - putting us about a third of the way up the list of 'old' university history departments. And with that score came approximately £90k a year in QR (Quality Related) funding for a staff of around 12, for the next four years. This radically transformed the character of the department. This was not all to the good. Arguably the focus on teaching changed and several colleagues whose world view was less grounded in the powerful values of the old poly sector let the funding rather go to their heads.  But the result of that RAE, and the redistribution of funding that followed, very much demonstrated that there was excellent research being produced throughout the sector.  I have always believed that the RAE was introduced under Thatcher as a way of disciplining the 'old' universities, and that the 1992 inclusion of the 'new' universities, was a part of the same strategy.  It worked.  Everyone substantially raised their game in the 1990s - or at least became more focussed on research and publication.  This was also a period during which student numbers were rapidly expanding, drawing in both money and new staff (following 10 years of decline and retrenchment).  My generation of historians for the most part doesn't exist.  Some made a career in the US, but most of my fellow doctoral students were forced to take jobs outside of the academy, and when expansion came in the early 90s, there was a new, younger generation keen to apply.  But following the 1992 RAE, my strongest emotion was a sense of self-righteous smugness - a belief that the purpose and drive that I found in my small department had been recognised, and the remarkable talents of its staff rewarded.

That success was largely repeated in 1996 -  and following that RAE I moved from the University of North London (later London Metropolitan University), to a 'Readership' at the University of Hertfordshire.  I was recruited as part of an RAE driven strategy following the poor showing of  Hertfordshire's very strong history department in the previous year's exercise.  Hertfordshire had failed to showcase the work of its recent appointments in its 1996 submission.   It was a bitter-sweet move for me - and I remain ambivalent about it.  But while North London did not seem to want to plan for the next RAE, Hertfordshire was actively strategising.  Over the next two rounds I was again tasked with writing a department's submission, and Hertfordshire's history department's score rose from a '2' to a '5*'.  In 2008 I also oversaw some seven submissions in my then role as director of the SSAHRI (Social Science, Arts and Humanities Research Institute) at Hertfordshire. In both these rounds, the 'new' universities seemed to make real progress; and the ridiculous hierarchies of the sector seemed to be gradually dissolving.  There was a recognition that even if the 'excellence' in the 'new' universities formed only 'pockets' they were nevertheless worth acknowledging and funding.  When, in 2001, the history department at Oxford Brookes received a 5* while Oxford University's history department was rated 5, it seemed as if anything was possible.  

For successful departments in my part of the sector, the RAE also gave new authority to academic staff.  Keeping staff, recruiting new staff, and providing a context in which academics could fulfil the requirements of the RAE became ever more important.  The number of staff promoted to 'Professor' expanded dramatically, and while salary scales did not move much, the distribution of posts between 'Professor', 'Reader', 'Senior Lecturer' and 'Lecturer' changed out of all recognition.  Where departments had traditionally had just one 'Professor', and while 'Senior Lecturer' was the height of most academic's ambition; promotions now came thick and fast.  In the process the amount of money spent on staff salaries increased significantly.   Along the way there were very difficult decisions to be made.  I personally only ever excluded one eligible person from the RAE, but the interview involved remains a raw memory.  By 2008, with the department I helped to lead riding high in the RAE (well in to the top third of departments), I was convinced that the new dispensation made sense.  A regular RAE, in combination with the greatly expanded funding available through the AHRC from 2004 onwards, created what felt like a largely balanced system of support that appeared to reward hard work and quality research wherever it was found.  Humanities scholars seldom acknowledge that the funding for their reserach via the AHRC increased from £20m to £100m in a single year (2004) at a time when universities themselves where increasingly obliged to give QR funding to the units of assessment that had 'earned' it via the RAE.  This substantially increased funding for the humanities as well.  As a beneficiary of the system, I was - of course - convinced by its fairness.

The advent of the REF and the arrival and changing level of student fees; the lifting of the cap on student numbers, and a powerful fight-back by the elite institutions (the Russell Group substantially upped its game in 2004), changed much of this. 

With the advent of first £3000, and then £9,000 fees, it became clear that government policy was shifting direction.  From supporting 'pockets of excellence' there would in future be a pattern of expansion and support largely driven by the prejudices of parents and employers.  The 'new' universities were being told to get back in their boxes.  At the same time, the inclusion of 'impact case studies' in the 2013 REF sent a strong message that near market and STEM research was likely to be prioritised in future.   

By 2013, and although Hertfordshire put in a stunning REF performance in history (ranked well in the top ten departments nationally and level-pegging with Cambridge), it seemed clear to me that this model of open competition would not be allowed to continue; or that hurdles were being built in to the system that would rapidly undermine the progress of the previous twenty years.  It was largely in despair at the direction of policy, that I took a post at the University of Sussex - as the least worst compromise I could come up with.  Again, this was a move made in response to a REF strategy.  In this instance it rapidly became clear that the relevant strategy existed primarily in the minds of the VC and head of school, and had not been agreed by my new colleagues - but there was a strategy.

After 25 years in the now not so 'new' universities, during which the RAE and REF seemed to form the basis for real opportunity and positive change - and the basis for grounded, long-term planning, I have since found myself in an 'old' university, where the REF feels more a threat than a promise.  Most of my colleagues would prefer the REF did not exist, and that research funding was simply allocated to them by dint of having secured a job at a 'good' University.  Having won the race to the finishing line they would prefer not to be obliged to compete further.   In my new 'old' university REF strategies are also closely monitored from the centre - and there are few opportunities to use the process in pursuit of coherent academic planning at departmental level.

For myself, I look back on this journey with mixed emotions.  The bureaucracy, the games playing and the constantly changing requirements of each new RAE/REF, served a series of British governments as a means of manipulating the university system.  First, it disciplined the 'old' universities, forcing them to take more seriously both research and public engagement - holding them to account for the public money they received.  And then, it hung the 'new' universities out to dry, by shifting the goal posts and ensuring that the system would be increasingly rigged in support of the 'old' ones.  In many ways, government - from Thatcher to Cameron and May -  played a community against itself - ensuring that all those academics who pretended to be part of a supportive community of scholarship would spend their time fighting madly to beggar their neighbour.  

But at the same time, I look to the promise of greater diversity offered by those early RAE's and cannot but think they must be at least a part of the solution.  The desire to get rid of the RAE is largely a cry to 'leave us alone'; and it is heard most loudly in the most privileged corridors of the academy.  And yet, when you look at the staff involved, if you measure their ethnic, class and cultural diversity, what rapidly emerges is a defence of the most selective process imaginable.  Most staff in the humanities in the 'old' universities (and the new) are white and middle class (myself included).  A substantial proportion come from 'academic' homes; and were given privileged access to an elite education by dint of their parent's social and academic capital.  If simply getting a 'job' frees you from ever demonstrating the significance of your work; and if all those people who did not get a job in the right corner of the academy are excluded from demonstrating the worth of their own labours, we simply re-enforce hierarchies of privilege to the detriment of the system.  Clear benchmarks, and transparent processes seem to me a better antidote to privilege than a strategy based on 'leaving us alone'.

ECRs have been dealt a rough hand.  The process of selection has been changed without anyone ever spelling out why or how.  The only explicit discussion of this I ever heard was at the AHRC, where the identification of the 'leaders of tomorrow' became an increasing pre-occupation from around 2010 as part of an emerging policy of concentrating research funding on an ever dwindling set of departments and research 'leaders'.  The path to secure academic employment is now predicated on a first class degree from the 'right'  university (read Oxbridge), followed by a funded doctorate at the 'right' university (read Oxbridge), followed by a post-doc (maybe London for varieties' sake), a book of the thesis, two articles, and success in the AHRC's 'New Generation Thinkers' competition.  And woe-betide anyone who fails to collect any one of these shiny tokens of achievement.  The effect is to raise the bar for secure employment while not being honest with the scholars who are in fact being judged and discarded at each stage.  The language of precarity actually hides an ongoing process of brutal selection.  This is a form of selection that re-enforces privilege and excludes scholars who have not travelled on this most banal, lock-step journey. To be caught in this system is very hard, but the REF is not the real issue. 

As I approach retirement I have become increasingly uncomfortable with higher education.  I look back and think with Malcom Chase that I would choose a different path if I was able to start over.  Higher education feels ever more akin to a factory for the reproduction of class and ethnic privilege - the pathways from exclusion to success ever more narrowly policed. Ironically it is not the 'neo-liberal' university that is the problem; but the 'neo-liberal' university dedicated to reproducing an inherited hierarchy of privileged access that uses managerialism and rigged competition to reproduce inequality.  To my mind, the REF was a game changing opportunity, and could be again.


102 comments:

Debbie Cameron said...

Interesting piece--to me at least, because my own career trajectory is quite similar to yours (started out in a non-university with no research funding stream in 1983, went to the US briefly, came back to work in a non-elite Scottish uni just before the 1992 RAE, did a spell as a HoD, eventually moved to an elite old uni) but my opinion of the exercise is quite different and has been right from the start. The trouble with the thesis about it, or the early forms of it, rewarding excellence and hard work wherever they were found (which I think a lot of our contemporaries believed) is that the judgments panels made were always opaque, unaccountable and (to my mind) in many cases capricious. I never had and still do not have any faith that the ratings are fair or that they represent any consistent, meaningful definition of 'excellence'. I thought even in 1990 that the exercise was mainly about resource rationing and managerial control. By introducing competition and gamespersonship at every level (institutional to individual) I would say it has done far more damage than good. Like you I was individually a beneficiary of it (I got jobs and promotions because of my publications), but nevertheless I agree with the younger people who are now criticising it as oppressive, and who in some cases are angry that our generation didn't oppose it before it became entrenched.

Tim Hitchcock said...

Dear Debbie, thanks for your engagement. I agree that the system was designed to serve as a tool of managerial manipulation; and certainly believe its current iteration is designed to deliver on a series of ends with which I strongly disagree - the closing down of the innovations and aspirations of the 'new' university sector. And I quite see why ECRs see it as just one more component of a system creating impossible demands. My difficulty is with the alternative. Any lectureship in my field will garner between 100 and 200 applications - almost all of these candidates will be essentially appointable. This demand is being used to generate an ever narrower set of criteria that has little to do with publications and the REF (ECR commentators wont see this, but fifty interview panels of experience tells me so), and much to with the reproduction of privileges of class and race. In the absence of an open system of assessment by communities of scholars, we will cede the choice of the next generation of academics to the interviewers at some Oxbridge college or other. Creating pathways into the academy from different points of origin is vital, and continuing forms of assessment seem one way to move in this direction. If you know precisely what standards are expected, anyone can strive to meet them, but if the nature of the judgement being made is hidden (or reverse engineered to some point in the distant past), non-standard entrants are left directionless. I would much prefer assessment to be in public and published at the level of the individual scholar, rather than departments or institutions.

The current system is clearly inadequate, but we need to be honest about the selection process a career in the academy implies; and to design a system that makes for positive change. As I said above, the calls for the abolition of the REF come overwhelmingly from the most privileged corridors of the academy - and they come from there, for an obvious reason.

Gagana Vaijayati said...

Thanks for the informative article. This is one of the best resources I have found in quite some time. Nicely written and great info. I really cannot thank you enough for sharing.

Shriram Magizhchi
Shriram Magizhchi Guduvancheri
Shriram Magizhchi Price
Shriram Magizhchi Chennai
Shriram Magizhchi Apartments
Shriram Magizhchi Flats
Shriram Magizhchi Review

preeti verma said...

Best MCA colleges in greater noida
Best MSC IT colleges in greater

noida

Best M TECH colleges in greater

noida

phD Assistance said...

Good post ..try to share more information, it will be very useful to us…!!!
Research Methodology For Phd

Contact Us
India : +91 8754446690
UK : +44-1143520021
Email: info@phdassistance.com
Visit :http://bit.ly/2MK4uaO

Jacob Ethan said...

I find this article useful. Kindly share more such articles so that I can get better insight. Masters Dissertation Writing Services

phD Assistance said...

Thank You For Sharing this Information. Phd Assistance Provide PhD Thesis writing services
Contact Us
India : +91 8754446690
UK : +44-1143520021
Email: info@phdassistance.com
Visit : http://bit.ly/2ISxQla

prince arora said...

Great information. I loved it and thanks for sharing such a great post.

Hadoop Pune
Hadoop Training in Pune
Big Data Certification in Pune
Hadoop Big Data Classes in Pune

Gokul Ravi said...

Hadoop concepts, Applying modelling through R programming using Machine learning algorithms and illustrate impeccable Data Visualization by leveraging on 'R' capabilities.With companies across industries striving to bring their research and analysis (R&A) departments up to speed, the demand for qualified data scientists is rising.
data science training in bangalore


Looking for best Machine Learning Training in Bangalore then join myTectra the leader in Machine Learning Training in Bangalore. Classroom & Online Training
machine learning training in bangalore
Big Data and Hadoop training Unlike traditional systems, Big Data and Hadoop enables multiple types of analytic workloads to run on the same data, at the same time, at massive scale on industry-standard hardware.myTectra Big Data and Hadoop training is designed to help you become a expert Hadoop developer. myTectra offers Big Data Hadoop Training in Bangalore using Class Room. myTectra offers Live Online Big Data and Hadoop training Globally.
hadoop training in bangalore

nandakishor said...

kingoroot app

kingoroot apk

kingoroot app download

Lohita Riya said...

Your site is amazing and your blogs are informative and knowledgeable to my websites.This is one of the best tips in my life.I have in quite some time.Nicely written and great info.Thanks to share the more information's.

Seo Experts
Seo Company
Web Designing Company
Digital Marketing
Web Development Company
App Development

srisiva rs said...

SQream Technologies provides you with a state of the art software which combines modern GPU technology (Graphic Processing Units) with the best practices in today’s Big Data platforms, providing up to 100x faster insights from data.
Bigdata Training in Chennai OMR

Unknown said...

myTectra Placement Portal is a Web based portal brings Potentials Employers and myTectra Candidates on a common platform for placement assistance

Amar G said...

Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing tool used to automate various types of applications. Selenium is a package of several testing tools designed in a way for to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web-based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms and for the same reason, it is referred to as a Suite.

Selenium Interview Questions and Answers
Javascript Interview Questions
Human Resource (HR) Interview Questions

Michael Jones said...

Programming Assignment help
If you are still in a dilemma, you could ask your teacher for some guidance, or you can take Assignment helpfrom different assignment writing service providers. There you can find many online experts, who are all set to help you in your assignment. The proper outline followed by them will give you an idea of how to make your assignment look more presentable and attractive.

Aishwarya said...

There are many interesting information included and i can easily understand all given information.I post something on my blog to post something, or wait to post something worth saying. Keep update more information....
Mobile App Development Company In Chennai
Android App Development Company In Chennai
Android Application Development Company In Chennai
Custom Web Application Development Company In Chennai

Araya said...

apkbooster.com

whatsapp plus apk

Yowhatsapp APK

Showbox apk

Spotify Premium apk

Ecphasis Infotech said...

Thanks for your great post
Thesis writing services
Journal writing
Thesis writing services in Chennai
Journal writing services in Chennai
phd research guidance in chennai
phd guidance center in chennai

Rithi Rawat said...

It's really a nice experience to read your post. Thank you for sharing this useful information. If you are looking for more about Machine learning training in chennai
machine learning with python course in Chennai
machine learning classroom training in chennai

kavinilavu G said...

Great post! I am actually getting ready to across this information, It's very helpful for this blog.Also great with all of the valuable information you have Keep up the good work you are doing well. Trending Software Technologies in 2018 | Hadoop Training in Chennai | big data Hadoop training and certification in Chennai |

DJ PRASATH said...

Thanks for your post. This is excellent information. The list of your blogs is very helpful for those who want to learn, It is amazing!!! You have been helping many application.
best selenium training in chennai | best selenium training institute in chennai

Unknown said...

Thanks for sharing this valuable information with us keep blogging
Digital Marketing Course in Vizag
Seo Training in Vizag
Digital Marketing Course in Vijayawada
Digital Marketing Course in Tirupati
Digital Marketing Course in Guntur
Seo Services in Vizag

How to make money on fiverr
Top Digital Marketing Trends 2019

sathya said...

Nice post. It is really interesting. Thanks for sharing the post!
fridge online shopping
refrigerator online shopping
refrigerator price online
online fridge price
Washing Machine Sale
washing machine online offers
Online Shopping

muthu said...


As you have now understood the usage of ‘Record and Playback’ tool, the following are the different posts using which you can explore the functioning of ‘Selenium IDE’
selenium Training in chennai

DJ PRASATH said...

Thanks for your post. This is excellent information. The list of your blogs is very helpful for those who want to learn, It is amazing!!! You have been helping many application.
best selenium training in chennai | best selenium training institute in chennai selenium training in chennai | best selenium training in chennai | selenium training in Velachery | selenium training in chennai omr | quora selenium training in chennai | selenium testing course fees | java and selenium training in chennai | best selenium training institute in chennai | best selenium training center in chennai

asha said...

Nice blog


best training institute for hadoop in Bangalore

best big data hadoop training in Bangalroe

hadoop training in bangalore

hadoop training institutes in bangalore

hadoop course in bangalore

Dharani M said...

Good information
best android training center in Marathahalli

best android development institute in Marathahalli

android training institutes in Marathahalli

ios training in Marathahalli

android training in Marathahalli

mobile app development training in Marathahalli



Pankaj Singh said...

Amazing information, Thanks for share this informative blog with us. Visit following page for web design services.
Web Designing Company in Delhi

Laxman S said...

I’m really impressed with your article, such great & usefull knowledge you mentioned here. Thank you for sharing such a good and useful information here in the blog
Kindly visit us @
SATHYA TECHNOSOFT (I) PVT LTD
Social Media Marketing Company | SMO Company India
Social Media Marketing Packages in India
PPC Campaign Price | Google Adwords Pricing in india
PPC Company in India | PPC Services India
Google Adwords company in India | Google Adwords Services in India
Best SEO Company in india | SEO Services in India
Bulk SMS Service India | Bulk SMS India

Sathya said...

Interesting information and attractive.This blog is really rocking... Yes, the post is very interesting and I really like it.I never seen articles like this. I meant it's so knowledgeable, informative, and good looking site. I appreciate your hard work. Good job.
Kindly visit us @
Sathya Online Shopping
Buy AC Online | AC Online Shopping | AC Price | Buy Air Conditioner Online
Inverter Split AC | Best Inverter AC | Split AC Price | Buy Split AC Online
Smart LED TV | Smart TV Price | LED TV Online | Buy LED TV Online
Laptop Online | Laptop Price | Buy Laptop Online | Best Laptop
Buy HD LED TV
Buy Ultra HD TV Online
Buy HD Ready LED TV
Buy Mobile Online

amsa leka said...

Wow!! Really a nice Article. Thank you so much for your efforts. Definitely, it will be helpful for others. I would like to follow your blog. Share more like this. Thanks Again.
iot training in Chennai | Best iot Training Institute in Chennai

Unknown said...

Thanks for sharing such a valuable information sap institute in Hyderabad

شركة صيانة تنظيف said...

شركة مكافحة حشرات بنجران

Unknown said...

Excellent!! You provided very useful information in this article. I have read many articles in various sites but this article is giving in depth explanation about Data Science training in Hyderabad . Recently, I also took training on this “Data Science training in Hyderabad"from Excelr.
Data Science training in Hyderabad

digitaltucr said...

ExcelR Offers Business Analytics / Data Scientist Course / Data Analytics Training & Data Science Course Training In Bangalore, With 100% Placement.<a href="https://www.excelr.com/business-analytics-training-in-bangalore/>Data science certification in Bangalore</a>

Dylan Eales said...

Thanks for this informative content. It’s really good. Actually, I want to share some thoughts and reviews about an Australian assignment help company in Australia and the brand name is SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT. Here, I am working as an Academic Expert. To look at our online academic assistants who provide reference assignment including Accounting, Management, Finance, IT, Economics, Computer Science, Nursing, Marketing; all Academic subjects to University Students all over the Australia or even worldwide, Here is a big online assignment help providers who help students to get HD grades according to assessment guidelines and instructions. Those who are searching for assignment help Melbourne, Perth, Brisbane, Adelaide etc. get a touch with Sample Assignment - the No.1 Assignment provider. Any student really wants to buy an assignment at the cheapest price goes to our branded website and has a look and opts our amazing and informative services, you can avail of our convenient online assignment help and samples available on our website for free. You can download it if you want. Are you ready to get 100 out of 100 in your university assessment? We assign the best writer according to the subject for your academic problems and provide support in assignment writing services. Our Customer Care Executives are available 24*7 hours to assist you in the best possible manner. Phone calls and emails are the best methods used by online assignment maker

Mobile app development company in Gurgaon said...

Visit here
Mobile app development company in toronto

PEP Treatment in Delhi said...

nice article thanks for this information hiv doctor near me

رجب البرنس said...


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم تقدم لكم شركة الكمال جميع خدمات رش المبيد يجميع انحاء المملكة بافضل انواع

المبيدات للقضاء على جميع الحشرات الطائرة والزاحفه كالصراصير والفائران والنمل الابيض والبق

والذباب والناموس
شركة رش مبيدات بالطائف
شركة رش مبيدات بجازان
شركة رش مبيدات بحائل
والسلامه عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

Sachin Sinhmar said...

fridge repair in faridabad
Bosch Fridge Repair in Faridabad
Godrej Fridge Repair in Faridabad

Sachin Sinhmar said...

we have provide the best ppc service in Gurgaon.
ppc company in gurgaon
website designing company in Gurgaon

Sachin Sinhmar said...

Rice Packaging Bags Manufacturers
Pouch Manufacturers

digitallife said...

pvc laminates sheet manufacturer india
pvc laminates sheet supplier in india
pvc laminates sheet
pvc laminates sheet exporter in india
bendable pvc sheet
pvc laminates sheet price
pvc sheet suppliers in haryana
bendable pvc laminates india
bendable plastic sheet in india
meraki flexible pvc sheet
flexible pvc sheet suppliers
leminated plastic sheet india
pvc coated sheets india
flexible pvc sheets india
LAMINATEd texture sheets in india
LAMINATEd marble sheets in india
biggest indian manufacturer of pvc laminates
unicore pvc laminates

digitallife said...

Interior Design Firm Delhi NCR
Interior Design Company in Noida
Interior Design Firm Noida
Interior Design Company In Delhi NCR
Top Interior Designer in Noida
Top 10 Interior Designer in Noida
Top 10 Interior Designer in Indrapuram
residential interior designer Delhi NCR
best interior designer in noida
interior design firm in delhi ncr
interior design firm delhi ncr
interior design company in noida
interior design company noida
interior design service in faridabad
best office interior decorators in noida
best office interior designers noida

digitallife said...

best leather manufacturers in india
top leather products manufacturers in india
leather goods supplier in India
aviation leather manufacturers in india
Synthetic leather manufacturer in India
Synthetic leather manufacturing company India
Synthetic leather supplier Delhi
leather footwear supplier in India
footwear manufacturing company in India
car seat cover manufacturers in india
leather garments manufacturers in india
leather garments designer in india
Leather bags manufacturer in Delhi

digitallife said...

Best Medical Tourism Facilitator In India
medical tourism companies in delhi
Tetralogy of Fallot treatment in india
Tetralogy treatment in india
medical visa from afghanistan to india
medical visa from ghana to india
medical visa from south sudan to india
medical visa from tanzania to india
medical fonism
Medical Tourism Company in Delhi
best hospital in india
medical tourism companies in delhi ncr
medical tourism company in delhi
knee replacement surgery in india
knee replacement specialist in india
open heart surgeries in india
urology treatments in india
ivf and infertility treatments in india
medical visa

digitallife said...

rajasthan golden triangle tour packages
kashmir tour package
goa tour package
Taj Mahal Same Day Tour
4 days goa tour packages
himachal pradesh tour packages
travel company in delhi
travel service in delhi
tajmahal day tours
holiday package in india
golden triangle tour package

Unknown said...

Can I simply say what a relief to uncover somebody who really knows what they are discussing on the internet.
You actually understand how to bring an issue to light and make it important.
More people have to read this and understand this side of your story.
It’s surprising you’re not more popular given that you surely possess the gift. If anyone is looking for weight loss medicines at cheaper price you can immediately call on +1-661-2217635 and get the best prescription by the experts.
Buy Reductil 15MG
Buy Meridia 15MG
Buy adipex 37.5mg
Buy Ambien 10mg
Buy Klonopin 1mg
Buy Valium 5mg
Pain Relief Medicines Online
Reduce Fat now with pills
Erectile dysfunction solution is here
Best anxiety medicine

Unknown said...

Trialix Male Enhancement CBD is a non-psychoactive a part of the marijuana plant. Such broad claims might sound like a snake oil gross sales pitch, however preliminary research does counsel that the compound could have wide-ranging results on the body. With CBD oil, you can get all the benefits of a stress-reliever. These days, there is a very excessive tendency to believe that oils extracted from some vegetation have an effect on mood and conduct. VitaCBD oil is made using low CO2 extraction and its formulation is unique, as they add Grape Seed Oil, which has healing properties as well for mental health, in addition to hemp seed oil and industrial hemp and CBD. Authors of a 2014 evaluate noted that CBD has anti-seizure properties and a low danger of unwanted side effects for individuals with epilepsy. However, it is essential to notice that some folks in both these studies experienced adverse reactions associated with CBD remedy, akin to convulsions, fever and diarrhea. It also donates hemp merchandise for homeless animals and pets of low-income households. In terms of the CBD products you should purchase, the amount of THC present varies from none in any respect in a pure CBD Isolate to a minimal quantity (lower than zero.three%) in a Full-Spectrum CBD product. The explanation that Billy's hashish oil was seized at Heathrow airport was that it didn't just comprise CBD, it also contained THC at larger ranges than legally permitted.
https://www.smore.com/czbha-trialix-male-enhancement-canada

TeknikoGlobal said...

Thanks for the article may be useful for everything
Mobile App Development in Noida

Unknown said...

I recently completed this data science course at ExcelR. I found this course very demanding. I learned a lot in this course. I was particularly impressed with the trainers which is the best feature of ExcelR. There is a wide breadth of topics covered in a short period of time. Love ExcelR.
data science course

InstaaCoders Technologies said...

Nice Post, I really appreciate your work.

Web Design Company Los Angeles ca
Website Development Company Los Angeles
Ecommerce website design los angeles
Seo Services Los Angeles
App Development Companies in Los Angeles
new york website design company
web development company in new york
SEO Agency New York
android app development new york
Mobile App Development Company in Delhi
Mobile App Development Services in Delhi

Unknown said...

Excellent!! You provided very useful information in this article. I have read many articles in various sites but this article is giving in depth explanation about business analytics course. Recently, I also took training on this “business analytics course" from Excelr.
business analytics course

amsa leka said...

Thanks for such a great article here. I was searching for something like this for quite a long time and at last, I’ve found it on your blog. It was definitely interesting for me to read about their market situation nowadays.angularjs best training center in chennai | angularjs training in velachery | angular 4 training in chennai | angularjs training in chennai

basha said...

Excellent blog I visit this blog it's really awesome. The important thing is that in this blog content written clearly and understandable. The content of information is very informative.
oracle fusion financials classroom training
Workday HCM Online Training
Oracle Fusion Financials Online Training
Oracle Fusion HCM Online Training
Oracle Fusion SCM Online Training
Oracle Fusion HCM Classroom Training

basha said...

Excellent blog I visit this blog it's really awesome. The important thing is that in this blog content written clearly and understandable. The content of information is very informative.
oracle fusion financials classroom training
Workday HCM Online Training
Oracle Fusion Financials Online Training
Oracle Fusion HCM Online Training
Oracle Fusion SCM Online Training
Oracle Fusion HCM Classroom Training

Domenic Tylor said...

If you are facing any problem in write assignment. Don’t worry; we are here to help writing homework. We provide homework helper. Our essay helpers are well-skilled with all the academic topics and deliver great writing for the students. Direct hire now at Australiaassignmenthelp.com

Jackman said...

Ask any student, and they’re likely to narrate to you their dire state, their sleepless nights, their exhausted cerebral capacity and their slowly crippling sense of being. Hence, students should make it a point to make use of the Write my essay for me, which is Write My Custom essay. This facility has pooled in and has gathered such a staunch presence in the industry, as they’re customer-centred, they offer an affordable price structure, they follow the Data Protection & Companies Act policy, and they shall never waver in the sort of quality they provide. Therefore, rather than wasting any time further, jump on the bandwagon of accessing their help.

Liam said...

Assignmentservicerating is best reviews site.We at Top Quality Assignment believe that there is no shortcut to success and to attain success, hard work, dedication, and commitment must be present. We are an online platform where students check & write reviews for assignments related websites.AllassignmentHelp.co.uk Reviews

devi said...

Well balanced course, great people, and fantastic environment. Thanks to ExcelR in providing me good knowledge in data science.
business analytics course

Shadeep Shree said...

The blog you have shared is stunning!!! thanks for it...
IELTS Coaching in Madurai
IELTS Coaching Center in Madurai
IELTS Coaching in Coimbatore
ielts classes in Coimbatore
PHP Course in Madurai
Spoken English Class in Madurai
Selenium Training in Coimbatore
SEO Training in Coimbatore
Web Designing Course in Madurai

Adam said...

Nice post, very useful blogs with very useful information, thank you for sharing this post android app development india

dat xoi said...

datxoichecom
datxoichedotcom
datxoichecom
datxoichecom

Exclusive Limousines said...

Thanks for sharing great info … Hiring a limousine are excellent option to make your special occasion more delightful. Limo Hire MelbourneHummer Hire Melbourne.

Maria Garcia said...

I would like to thank you for such a piece of work. It is very informative. However, this is to inform the visitors about My Assignment Services. It is an assignment help service provider assisting students worldwide. They are associated with more than 4000 academic writers who have sound knowledge and experience in designing assignments. I am the one among those writers providing nursing leadership essay help from the last five years. We stand 24 hours all over the week for the students who are in need of nursing essay writing help. Additionally, we offer help against health economics under our service "health economics assignment help". Also, we provide samples for nursing assignment where students can understand the approach followed to write assignments. It will help in scoring A+ grades in your assignment. These samples have been written by our subject matter professionals.

bestieltscoachingindwarka said...

I feel happy about and learning more about this topic. keep sharing your information regularly for my future reference. This content creates new hope and inspiration within me. Thanks for sharing an article like this. the information which you have provided is better than another blog.
Best IELTS coaching in Dwarka
IELTS Coaching in Delhi
best IELTS Coaching in Delhi

Pardeep Mengi said...

Nice and interesting post. Thank You! For sharing such a great article, I like to read your information you have mentioned in this article are helpful for me.
IELTS coaching in rohini
Best IELTS coaching in rohini

cynthiawilliams said...

I feel happy to see your webpage and looking forward for more updates.
Machine Learning course in Chennai
Machine Learning Training in Chennai
Data Science Course in Chennai
Data Science Classes in Chennai
R Training in Chennai
R Programming Training in Chennai
Data Science Training in Velachery
Data Science Course in Anna Nagar

jasmineblack1107 said...

“What is GotoAssignmentHelp? How does it work?”
GotoAssignmentHelp is an online Assignment Help service provider for students of any level in Australia, UK, USA and assignment help Canada.
Check out assignment help nz and get connected for the best online writing service and secure best grades for your academic career.

Mobile app development company in Mumbai said...

Mobile app development company in mumbai

wevalsn1994 said...

In need of dissertation writing in UK? Looking for dissertation help UK in cheap rates with premium quality?
Then head up to GotoDissertationHelp for top quality dissertation writing help with the help of UK PhD professional writers.
In terms of subjects you can also avail HRM dissertation help and Marketing Dissertation Help. Students in UAE can now get best ever dissertation help UAE with the help of native experts.
Get 30% OFF on your first order. Hurry Up. Book Now.

sathya said...

Nice post! It is really interesting and wonderful. Thanks for sharing.
GPS Vehicle Location Tracking in India
vehicle tracking system in india

john alexa said...

Thanks for your help, GreatAssignmentHelp is the proper place for all your PHP Assignment Help. Our educator provide help to both the Masters and Bachelor level students. PHP professionals who working with us have a solid grab of Advanced and basic PHP. In addition, We continue update our professor about the new technology in the field of programming, we continue upload our researched technology blogs, articles, and journals. It assurance that you get the best help and rank nothing less than top.
PHP Assignment Help
PHP Programming Help

Aravind ProPlus Logics said...

Wow, amazing blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is fantastic, let alone the content!

3D Animation services in Atlanta
Cheap Rate Chatbot Development Service
Cheap Rate Mobile app development in Coimbatore

htop said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
htop said...

thanks for sharing this information
best angularjs training in chennai
angular js training in sholinganallur
best hadoop training in chennai
selenium training in chennai
selenium training in omr
selenium training in sholinganallur

Stacy Kelly said...

Nice Post! Quicken is used by all business members to allow their business to run smoothly. There are a lot of advantages of using Quicken. But as every coin has two sides positive and negative, Quicken also has these two sides. The positive side is heavier in comparison to the negative side. The negative aspects of Quicken occurs due to some technical problems like configuration and setting problem, additional feature won’t be up to the mark, Quicken not installed properly, etc. Don’t worry about the negative sides. Keep calm. Quicken customer support number +1-888-817-0312 is there to solve all your issues. Dial our Toll Free number and stay connected with our experts to deal with your problems. They are always present to help you out in any kind of technical problem. Scroll our website for further information.
Quicken Customer Support Number
Quicken Customer Support Phone Number
Quicken Customer Support

Quicken Online Backup
Quicken support Phone number
Quicken Support Number
Quicken Error OL-301-A
quicken error cc-506
Quicken Error CC-800

Merlin Kristianti said...

Untuk kalian beberapa anggota baru atau lama mungkin dalam perihal ini kami begitu ingin memperjelas. Janganlah kalian sangat gampang untuk memberi atau mentransfer
asikqq
dewaqq
sumoqq
interqq
pionpoker
bandar ceme terpercaya
hobiqq
paito warna
forum prediksi

htop said...

thanks for sharing this information
best hadoop training in chennai
best hadoop training in omr
hadoop training in sholinganallur
best java training in chennai
best python training in chennai
selenium training in chennai
selenium training in omr
selenium training in sholinganallur

AB Assignment Help said...

Your post is good and informative. If you are looking for the best assignment help online, you can contact us. We will provide timely assignment writing services at an affordable cost, and will also provide this service for all topics.

HP Printer Troubleshooting said...

When you think to buy a laptop, printer, scanner and tablet then HP is one of the brands that come first to your mind. There is no doubt that HP is offering very reliable products. Along with the HP device the availability of HP Support is very necessary to overcome technical errors with the device.

المثالي سوبر جديد said...

شركة المراكز الاولي للخدمات المنزلية


شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالدمام



بنقدملك كل ماهو جديد في عالم اليوتيوب واحدث الفيديوهات العالمية من خلال فريق العمل
قناة لمتنا الحلوة مع شيماء وشيرين



سيارة تسليك مجاري بالقطيف

Tillock Watson said...

A high-level post with a piece of knowledgeable information.Thank you for sharing such information.
if you need any academic level Assignment Help at reliable quality with better work.
kindly visit us or WhatsApp +61 2 80113341

Rayan Warner said...

While working excellent the day I bring Microsoft office 365 into play, suddenly from the last couple of days, it started to throw some error while working in it. However, after taking Microsoft 365 Support and reading the measures which are mentioned in this guide helps me to resolve my entire issues related to Microsoft 365. Get support click here
Office 365 Help
Office 365 Support
Microsoft Office 365 Support
Outlook Support
Microsoft Outlook Support
Outlook Support Number
Outlook Support Phone Number
Outlook Tech Support Phone Number
Outlook Technical Support Phone Number
Outlook Customer Service Phone Number
Outlook Customer Support Phone Number
Outlook Support Number
Microsoft Office Support
Microsoft Office Customer Service
Microsoft Tech Support
Microsoft Tech Support Number
Microsoft Tech Support Phone Number
Microsoft Technical Support Phone Number
Microsoft Technical Support Number
Microsoft Technical Support
Microsoft Office Support Phone Number
Microsoft Office Support Number

Amit said...

Its amazing post and contents of this post is very helpful.

Web Development Company in Bangalore | Website Design Company in Bangalore

harshak said...


https://modapkmarket.com/
https://modapkmarket.com/turbo-vpn-apk-download/
https://modapkmarket.com/psiphon-pro-apk-download/
https://modapkmarket.com/wifikill-pro-apk-download/


Canon Support said...

Why is Your Canon Printer not printing correctly?
When you apply the printing command to your canon printer, you get failure message. Your printer is unable to print any document, so it shows that your printer has some technical faults. You need to repair it immediately, so we are the best skilled printer technicians and can help you remotely. Our printer experts have the technical skills, and depth knowledge to repair your canon printer correctly. Our canon support number helps you to provide instant solutions for any issue. Being a reliable third party support provider, we take only nominal charges.

htop said...

thanks for sharing this information
best devops training in chennai
 devops training in chennai
best hadoop training in chennai
best hadoop training in omr
hadoop training in sholinganallur
best java training in chennai
best python training in chennai

seocom said...



شركات عزل الاسطح بالمدينة المنورة
إلى كل من يحب أن يقوم بتنفيذ عزل أسطح ولن يثق في أي مكان غير معتمد، فنحن من موقعنا هذا نقدم لكم أفضل شركة عزل اسطح بالمدينة المنورة والتي تعمل على تركيب أنواع متعددة ومختلفة من العزل، فنحن نقوم بتركيب عزل فوم وعزل حراراي وعزل مائي، أيضاً نقوم بتركيب عزل صوتي لمنع الازعاج فكل ما تحتاج إليه عزيزنا العميل لدينا سوف تحصل عليه بأرخص أسعار عزل اسطح بالمدينة المنورة، كما أن لدينا مهندسين محترفين مدربين على أعلى مستوى يمكنهم القيام بتنفيذ جميع أعمال العزل المختلفة والمتنوعة.

Rajesh said...

nice post
aws training in bangalore
Amazon web services training in bangalore
best AWS Training institute in Bangalore
aws training institutes in bangalore
aws certification course in bangalore
devops training in bangalore
devops training institutes in bangalore
devops certification course in bangalore

Irvi Loy said...


Are you searching online Autocad assignment ? if yes then do not worry about that, because MyAssignmentHelp is one such assignment help provider who believe only in the quality, so connect them for assignment help.

Hary Robert said...

Ohh My God!! you are really incredible. Amazing History! Thanks for sharing your experience.. Limousine Melbourne | wedding limo hire melbourne

harshak said...

https://acmarket.xyz/
Ac market
Ac market apk
Ac market download
Ac market ios

meldaresearch said...

We are the best writing company providing write my Cheap Dissertation Writing Services for all subject areas and education level. Our writers work under strict guidelines in day and night shifts to ensure that every Essay Writing Service is completed and submitted before the provided deadline.

Canon Support said...

“Eradicate the issue of the Black screen with the help of Microsoft Windows 10 support”
If you have not yet upgraded to the Windows 10 update, then you may see yourself affected by the black-screen bug that results from a minor security upgrade. So, to overcome this problem you need to follow some simple steps given here. First of all, hit Ctrl + Alt + Delete simultaneously on your keyboard. After that, hit the Power button in the bottom right corner then “Restart” your system. These steps will surely eradicate your issue, but if not, its time to take help from Microsoft windows 10 support team. Experts will sort out your problem and suggest the best remedy for your problem. Just dial our toll free number and get the assistance.
microsoft windows 10 support
windows 10 support
windows 10 tech support
Windows 10 Customer Service

Mayas Hummer said...

Great info… Thanks for sharing Mayas Hummer Hire Melbourne offer professional limo rental service at affordable price. Hummer Hire Melbourne Prices.

Web Designing Company in Uttam Nagar said...

We are one of the Best Security Services in Delhi, House Keeping Services in Delhi and Facility Management Services in Janakpuri in Delhi, ISF India established in the year 2005 has been providing all type of security services in Delhi and all over India
Best Security Service in Delhi
House Keeping Services in Delhi

Pardeep Mengi said...

Usually I never comment on blogs but your article is so convincing that I never stop myself to say something about it. You’re doing a great job Man,Keep it up.
New Zealand education Consultants in Delhi
ielts coaching in gurgaon

Penis Enlargement cream from doctor OLU said...

Hello everyone, my name is Alfreed siang  i am here to say a big thank you to my doctor DR OLU who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how DR OLU has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..drolusolutionhome@gmail.com   or his whataspp is +2348140654426



























Hello everyone, my name is Alfreed siang  i am here to say a big thank you to my doctor DR OLU who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how DR OLU has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..drolusolutionhome@gmail.com   or his whataspp is +2348140654426

Benish said...

Really nice post. Thank you for sharing amazing information.
Python training in Chennai/Python training in OMR/Python training in Velachery/Python certification training in Chennai/Python training fees in Chennai/Python training with placement in Chennai/Python training in Chennai with Placement/Python course in Chennai/Python Certification course in Chennai/Python online training in Chennai/Python training in Chennai Quora/Best Python Training in Chennai/Best Python training in OMR/Best Python training in Velachery/Best Python course in Chennai

jose said...

Really nice post. Thank you for sharing amazing information.
Java Training in Credo Systemz/Java Training in Chennai Credo Systemz/Java Training in Chennai/Java Training in Chennai with Placements/Java Training in Velachery/Java Training in OMR/Java Training Institute in Chennai/Java Training Center in Chennai/Java Training in Chennai fees/Best Java Training in Chennai/Best Java Training in Chennai with Placements/Best Java Training Institute in Chennai/Best Java Training Institute near me/Best Java Training in Velachery/Best Java Training in OMR/Best Java Training in India/Best Online Java Training in India/Best Java Training with Placement in Chennai

HP Support said...

Keeping the full affection with computer peripherals is not a bad bargain as you can get the best chance to complete all business work on time. HP Printer is one of the common devices which are used for taking the printout. No one can give the sure claim how long each part and parcel of HP printer proffers the quality result. Without giving any ultimate sign, some odds come in HP printer which does not let you to proceed in forward direction. You ought to access on hp.com/support for eliminating the major hazard in it at any cost. There is no direct link to HP brand ad we worked as third company professional team to rectify issue. Hence, it is advised to come on our third party professional team as you do not like to excuse any technical interference. In the emergency case, you can dial our toll free number. Feel free to connect with us.
https://www.hpprintersupportpro.com/blog/find-the-wps-pin-on-my-hp-printer/